Lydiard's 長跑訓練觀念

快步人生路 於 16/04/2012 發表 收藏文章
Training concepts by Arthur Lydiard(1917-2004)

本篇文章及括弧內之中文翻譯最早由臺灣長跑孵蛋箱站長陳天行教練翻譯及整理,在2006年夏天於網站留言板登載。由於Lydiard的訓練觀念不能直接由字面上直接解釋,所以EST編輯針對原文中部分語意不清的部分添加說明,希望能幫助跑友了解Lydiard的訓練觀念,並歡迎所有人提問或討論。

1.There are champions everywhere. Every street's got them. All we need to do is train them properly.(到處都是冠軍的料,每條街都有。而我們該做的,就是給予適當的訓練。)

2.Anyone can train a Kenyan. They run all the bloody time from early childhood and have a high oxygen uptake level, so all you have to do is give them speedwork and they succeed.(任何人都可以當肯亞選手的教練。他們從很小開始,就花超多的時間在跑步上,早已擁有高攝氧能力。所以你只要叫他們操操速度,他們就成功了。)

3.The last thing you should do is speedwork without the stamina to support it.(你最不應該做的,就是耐力基礎還沒打好之前,就操速度。

4.It's your aerobic development that makes you a great runner, not the anaerobic development.(偉大的跑者,靠的是有氧訓練,而不是無氧訓練。)

5.There's no shortcut to the top.(走捷徑,就上不了巔峰。)

6.No one will burn out doing aerobic running.(沒有人會因為做有氧訓練而過度疲勞。)

7.Anaerobic training is what destroys young runners.(無氧訓練是摧毀年輕跑者的元凶。)

8.It's not distance that stops you; but speed.(迫使你停下來的不是距離,而是速度。)

9.It was not only that I ran hard, it was that I ran long and hard.(不只是因為我跑得快,更因為我跑得快又遠。)

10.My runners never ran slow.(我的選手從來不慢慢跑。)

11.You can't train hard and race well at the same time.(在辛苦訓練的期間參加比賽,是不可能跑出好成績的。)

12.Once you get into racing, you train to race, you don't train to train.(一旦進入比賽期,訓練就是針對比賽,而不是為了做進一步的訓練。)

13.It's not the best athletes who succeed in important competitions but the best prepared.(重要比賽的輸贏並非取決於誰是最好的選手,而是要看誰準備得最充分。)

14.They (Good marathoners who race too often) have about two good years before they go flat.(太常參加比賽的馬拉松好手,大概可以風光個兩年,之後就乏善可陳了。)

15.There is no secret formula.(中長跑訓練沒有祕方。)

16.The best way to develop aerobic capacity was to train at higher aerobic speed.(提升有氧能力的最有效方式,是訓練時跑高有氧配速。)

17.The best results come when you train to a comfortably tired state, knowing as you finish that the training could have been harder.(最佳效果來自於:當你練到相當累又不太累的地步,練完之後有意猶未盡的感覺。)

18.In conditioning training, you can never run too slow to improve the oxygen uptake; but you can run too fast.(鍛練期的訓練是要提升你的攝氧能力,在這期間,不怕你跑太慢,就怕你跑太快。)

19.Your aerobic development is a gradual thing. It takes years and years of marathon-type training to develop your aerobic capacity to the fullest.(有氧訓練急不得,必須經過年復一年馬拉松式的訓練,才能充分開發你的有氧能力。)
20.It's not what you do this year or next year but what you do in five to 10 years time that counts.(今年或明年怎麼練並非關鍵,關鍵在於五到十年當中你都練了些什麼。)

21.Train, don't strain.(要訓練,不要練壞身體。)

22.My athletes don't have pain. They enjoy running.(我的選手蠻享受跑步的,他們不覺得跑步有多痛苦。)

23.You've got to work on your speed every week.(每個禮拜你都得練速度。)

24.Son, if you're prepared to do the work, if you're prepared to run a hundred miles a week, I will coach you. Otherwise, don't waste your time or mine.(少年吔,如果你肯練,如果你願意一週跑100英里,我就當你的教練;否則拉倒,以免浪費彼此的時間。)

25.Do what I tell you or move on.(照我說的去做,不然就離開。)

26.Breathe through your mouth. Breathe through your nose. Suck the air in through your ears, if you can.(用嘴巴呼吸,也用鼻子呼吸;可能的話,再用耳朵幫忙吸氣。)

27.Interval training counteracts speed.(間歇訓練是反速度的。) "Most people misunderstand interval training as speed training," Arthur preaches. "But the truth is, interval training counteracts speed. When your body becomes fatigued with accumulation of lactic acid, invariably your body tightens up. In order to improve your speed, you need to work on your knee lift, drive off with your back leg, your stride frequency by improving your muscle viscosity, and better overall running techniques by working on drills."補充說明:一般人以為練間歇就能提升速度,其實間歇訓練是為了提高訓練效率和避免受傷所設計,是利用各種運動強度配合設定的休息間隔時間,反覆刺激的方法,主要用來發展有氧或無氧耐力。一般業餘選手一禮拜練一到兩次間歇訓練就夠,要提升速度則在於跑步技巧訓練,亦即跑步基礎動作練習,包含擺臂、抬腿、步頻等,建議每次練跑完做跑步基本動作練習可以改善跑步技巧

28.You quit when you've had enough.(操夠了,就停止。)

29.Run for fun, and from the fun will come the will to excel.(為樂趣而跑;樂趣有了,自然產生追求卓越的意願。)

30.Children are better equipped than adults to run distances.(兒童比成人更具備跑長距離的條件。)

31.An 8- or 9-year-old boy or girl can run 5, 10, even 20 miles easily.(八、九歲的男生或女生,可以輕易跑完5、10甚至20英里。)

32.When we don't tire physically, we don't tire mentally either.(當我們的身體不容易疲勞,我們的精神也同樣不容易疲勞。)

33.If you look back last year at your performances and one day you went out, the previous year, you ran your best time of the year, everything went right. If you knew why you ran so well that day and this year you can put your training together, so on the day of the Japanese Championship or the Olympics or the big race you are training for, you can produce your top form, then you know something about training. But until you can do that, you don't know anything about training. You are just a good athlete who, one day, would run a good race but you don't know when. (如果你回顧去年的表現,回想某月某日參加比賽,跑出了個人年度最佳成績──一切都很完美。如果你知道為什麼當天可以跑得那麼棒,而今年你也能夠規畫好訓練,讓你在全國錦標賽或奧運或預定的大比賽那天,秀出個人最佳狀況,那麼你在訓練上,可說已得到個中三昧。如果你辦不到,表示你根本就不懂得訓練。你只是個不錯的選手,總有一天會跑出個好成績,但你不知道會是哪一天。)

34.Training should never be raced.(絕對不可以把訓練當作比賽。)
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一般跑者或許認為某些跑者週週連馬『很厲害、超猛』,但是在Tim Noakes(南非開普敦大學運動和體育科學教授,Lore of Running作者)眼中,他們的下場只不過是『貪婪與無知』(greed and ignorance)的必然結果。(Lore of Running, p. 652)
有人做過實驗,發現參加半馬以上距離的比賽,將對肌肉造成相當大的損傷,距離越長,所造成的損傷也越大。而這種損傷所呈現出來的,就是強烈的肌肉痠痛。這種肌肉損傷是急性的,只要你給它足夠的時間,其實是可以恢復的。但是,如果你習慣性地在這種痠痛未完全消除之前,就繼續操練或參加比賽,那麼肌肉經過一而再,再而三的摧殘,其基因和再生能力將遭到破壞,而導致不可逆的損傷(irreversible damage)。這時,你將發現,別說是比賽,即使是稍具強度的訓練,都變得很困難。那麼,比賽之後該如何讓肌肉恢復呢?專家的建議是:
無任何不適-->照常訓練
碰觸肌肉時有些許不適-->減量訓練7天,停止比賽2週
走路或下蹲有不適感-->減量訓練14天,停止比賽1個月
劇痛,連走路都困難-->減量訓練至少1個月,停止比賽2個月

"We all know our limitations", "You keep within limitations, you’ll keep improving.

"You can never train too slowly. But you can run too fast and get yourself in trouble."一般跑者訓練時最大問題是跑得既不夠快,也不夠慢。LSD是為了增加耐力,所以速度要"夠慢"、速度訓練是為了改善無氧耐力,所以速度要"夠快"。
Lydiard training is to balance all training aspects over a long period of time so you can peak on a given day. "In order to do that," Lydiard would say, "everything is important." The Lydiard sequence is to develop stamina by doing lots of running, then strengthen leg muscles by bounding up hills, then develop maximum anaerobic capacity by incorporating interval-type training. Finally, taper, so that you are at your peak on the day you want to race at your best.
不管LSD、Easy run、TEMPO、Speed,每一種訓練方法都很重要,長時間使用不同訓練方法才能在比賽當天有最佳表現。訓練的順序是由長距離練習發展耐力基礎、山坡跑增加下肢肌力(建議跑上不跑下)、使用間歇訓練增加最大無氧能力
,最後記得賽前21天要"減量"Taper

跑者不會因為練不夠多,而是因為練太多造成比賽失去應有水準

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標籤: 跑步理論  跑步練習  

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